Tech & Science Time of death written in your genes — and it could help forensic investigators

00:59  14 february  2018
00:59  14 february  2018 Source:   ABC News

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Alive or dead , these bugs can reveal where a crime took place, whether the victim had been given drugs, and the time of death . Once a suspect is caught, a forensic psychologist can determine whether they are of sound mind. Even in cases of suspected suicide, investigators can examine the

These ofcials are forensic pathologists responsible for the investigation of all suspicious, unexpected, or unnatural deaths occurring in their jurisdiction. For instance, asking the question, “ In your opinion was it raining at that time , if you could tell?”, is actually a question which calls for direct observation.

Current ways of nutting out when a person died aren't exact, especially in the first 24 hours after death.© Kirk Marsh/Getty Images Current ways of nutting out when a person died aren't exact, especially in the first 24 hours after death.

Genetic clocks that start ticking after you die could one day help forensic investigators better nail down time of death.

When our heart stops beating, our body tissues don't instantly up and die too. The genetic machinery inside some cells can keep whirring away hours — perhaps even a couple of days — after we've shuffled off this mortal coil.

Researchers from Europe and the Americas have found certain genes ramp up or wind down in skin, lungs and other body tissues in the hours after death.

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Forensic Investigation Lab Book The information collected by the forensic investigative teams may be written up in a forensic database or in a Forensic Investigation Even the smell of putrefaction and amount of bloating follow a specific cycle, and can help in estimating the time of death .

According to a new study published in the journal BioRxiv, analyzing the activity levels of these zombie genes could help investigators to more accurately determine a corpse’s time of death , which could , in turn, improve their chances of figuring out how they died.

They also developed software that can analyse these gene patterns to calculate how long since that person died.

Their research was published today in Nature Communications.

What happens to genes after death?

Roderic Guigó, at the Centre for Genomic Regulation in Spain, and an international team decided to investigate how death and the hours afterwards affect gene activity.

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These new techniques help forensic scientists and criminal investigators reconstruct more representative crime scenes and more precisely determine time of death . Researchers have recently shown that using a ratio of mRNA of a highly abundant gene to that of rRNA, it is possible to

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Their aim was to create the first comprehensive map of gene activity after death.

"Most of what we know about gene expression in tissues has been investigated through the analysis of samples taken from dead people," said computational biologist Professor Guigó.

The team analysed data from the US-based Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. The GTEx repository contains thousands of tissue samples collected from corpses at different time intervals after death, along with their gene activity.

So how do scientists measure gene activity in a human tissue sample?

It's inferred from levels of mRNA, a type of genetic material similar to DNA. Levels of mRNA increase when a gene's activity is increased.

Professor Guigó and his crew examined 36 different types of tissue from 540 donors at different intervals after death and looked for gene activity that significantly rose or fell.

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There are several other subdivisions of forensic investigation that can be used for the collection of evidence. Investigators specializing in entomology conduct examinations of insects on or near human remains, which can help determine location and time of death .

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They found gene activity in some tissues, such as muscle, dropped off almost immediately after blood stopped flowing.

But in others, not only did gene expression continue, but it ramped up over time.

HBA1 is one gene that ramped up. It encodes a type of haemoglobin, which shuttles oxygen around the body, and consistently increased in 10 tissues tested, including the colon, oesophagus and testis.

After death, when blood stops flowing, cells might ramp up haemoglobin production to scrounge what little oxygen is left, Professor Guigó said.

Developing a genetic stopwatch on death

The researchers then narrowed down the tissue types to the smallest combination that best predicts time of death.

They ended up with four tissue types: sun-exposed skin, fat found just below the skin, thyroid and lung.

To use those tissues in a forensic analysis setting, the team trained a machine-learning algorithm to analyse mRNA data and give the time between death and tissue collection.

When they tested the algorithm, they found its predictions were certainly not perfect, but generally accurate to within an hour. The software is open-sourced.

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Much of the time , laboratory work deals with postmortem toxicology and helping to unravel a cause of death but forensic toxicologists are often called to do casework that There are many ways forensic dentistry can help in an investigation . ¾ Superior communication skills, both orally and in writing .

Estimating the time of death , especially in cases where there are no witnesses, is critical to the investigation . A definite time of death can corroborate or disprove a suspect's alibi. Although the homicide investigator is not expected to have the knowledge of a forensic pathologist, he would

"We think, eventually, this [software] could be a complementary approach [to forensic methods]," Professor Guigó said.

Forensic scientists currently establish a window of time of death in a range of ways, each of which "aims to narrow that window", said Brendan Chapman, a forensic biologist at Murdoch University in Perth.

These include taking a body's deep internal temperature, measuring the stiffness of muscles (rigor mortis), electrically stimulating face muscles to measure excitability, potassium levels in eyeball fluid and taking stock of maggots and other creepy-crawlies.

But, he added, "It's always been an inexact science".

"Body temperature, for instance, gives you a window of plus or minus 2.8 hours — at best," Mr Chapman said.

So the new gene-activity analysis, Mr Chapman said, is "a brilliant foundation" to help investigators calculate time of death, particularly within the first 24 hours.

The major problem was the quality of the samples.

"These are clinically collected samples, collected for various other purposes in a clinical environment and well-preserved, " he said.

"It's not like someone's house in the middle of summer, or out in the bush. What effect that has is unknown."

And in Australia, that's a problem.

"Tissue is likely to degrade very quickly, providing a very short window of opportunity to use the gene-expression method to predict [time of death]," Griffith University forensic biologist Kirsty Wright said.

Before the software is added to the forensic toolkit, Professor Guigó said, it does need some additional fine-tuning to take these factors into account.

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