Tech & Science Life under Antarctica ice is adapting to climate change

09:42  14 november  2017
09:42  14 november  2017 Source:   MSN

First luxury Perigord truffle is cultivated in Britain

  First luxury Perigord truffle is cultivated in Britain A black Perigord truffle has been cultivated in Britain for the first time, and the scientists who announced the breakthrough on Monday said climate change could make it a new British crop. The 16-gramme (0.6-ounce) specimen was cultivated in Wales in the roots of a Mediterranean oak tree that had been treated with truffle spores.Scientists from Cambridge University and Mycorrhizal Systems Ltd (MSL) said they also added lime minerals in the surrounding soil to make it less acidic.A Perigord truffle can be worth as much as £1,700 ($2,200, 1,900 euros) per kilogramme in Britain.

While some species are able to adapt to climate change , melting Antarctic ice will strip emperor penguins of their breeding and feeding grounds, putting their numbers at risk. 'Given this outlook, we argue that the Emperor penguin is deserving of protection under the Endangered Species Act.'

Credit: British Antarctic Survey. Antarctica has not experienced a net loss of sea ice in the way the Arctic has. The ice has melted over more-productive continental shelves as ice has formed over less-productive, deeper waters. Can corals adapt to climate change ? November 1, 2017.

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Sea ice around Antarctica is significantly dropping and beneath the ice, scientists are surprised by the rapid changes they're seeing in marine life in the Ross Sea.

Syria to join Paris climate accord, leaving US as only non-member

  Syria to join Paris climate accord, leaving US as only non-member Syria told the UN climate talks in Bonn on Tuesday that it would join the Paris Agreement, leaving the United States as the only nation in the world opting to stay outside the landmark treaty. "We are going to join the Paris Agreement," the Syrian delegate, speaking in Arabic, said during a plenary session at the 196-nation talks, according to Safa Al Jayoussi of the IndyAct NGO, who was monitoring the session.The United States ratified the 2015 pact but US President Donald Trump announced earlier this year that he would pull out, saying the pact did not serve US interests.

More information: Islands in the ice : climate change impacts Antarctic biodiversity habitat, Nature (2017). nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/nature22996. Antarctica 's biodiversity is under threat from tourism, transnational pollution and more. Can corals adapt to climate change ? November 1, 2017.

Already Arctic human communities are adapting to climate change , but both external and internal Elsewhere on continental Antarctica , climate change is also affecting the vegetation and lake- ice cover, which will lead to changes in lake thermal structures, quality/quantity of under - ice habitat and

A scuba team of highly experienced divers are currently carrying out experiments on the sea floor, but for two of the women, it's their first time diving under the ice.

Until recently, Hamilton marine ecologist Samantha Parkes and Auckland PhD student Jenny Hillman had never been to Antarctica.

They started their training on site at New Harbour, jumping in the deep end through 3.5m of sea ice into ocean water so cold, it's -2degC. Dry suits keep them from freezing during the 45 minutes they stay underwater, diving to a depth of 20 metres.

"It's starting to feel really natural," Ms Parkes told Newshub. "It's not kind of that shock of, 'Oh my god we're under the ice'."

The scuba team have placed chambers on the sea floor, so they can closely study how the animals inside are reacting to a warming climate.

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  Climate change 'worsening extreme weather' in Australia Climate change activists have warned Australia is at risk of worsening storms, bushfires and heatwaves as a result of climate change. Launching the Climate Council's Critical Decade 2017: Accelerating Climate Action report, Professor Will Stefan said a lack of action on climate change across the nation has resulted in rising pollution levels since early 2015."For south-eastern Australia the climate is already changing, extreme weather is getting worse,” he said.

The Emperor penguin is actually currently under consideration when it comes to inclusion under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because these birds are heavily dependent on sea ice for their livelihoods, they're also sensitive to lower sea ice coverage due to climate change .

They also forage under the ice and near the ice edge. It is very unlikely that these species could adapt to life The impacts of climate change in the Arctic underscore the urgency with which the world’s While there has been an increase in sea ice in some parts of Antarctica - a change linked to

"The changes, since 2009, have been remarkable," expedition leader and principal investigator Dr Drew Lohrer said.

a man holding a gun © Provided by MediaWorks NZ Limited

In the past, the sea ice at New Harbour has been locked in place for more than a decade.

Now it's breaking out every few years, generating more food - micro-algae - for the underwater sea creatures to eat.

"The most surprising thing is how quickly the organisms - the animals - have responded to that food," Dr Lohrer said.

"The diversity is quite high and there are lots more organisms than we found last time we were here."

And while more food for these creatures may seem like a positive change, it may also mean more predators.

"There are always winners and losers when you change the conditions," Dr Lohrer said.

As the team studies those changes, the divers' safety is paramount.

a man sitting in a swimming pool © Provided by MediaWorks NZ Limited

There's another dive hole, in case a seal should claim the main one, and the divers are always tethered.

NASA Discovers Mantle Plume Almost as Hot as Yellowstone Supervolcano That's Melting Antarctica From Below

  NASA Discovers Mantle Plume Almost as Hot as Yellowstone Supervolcano That's Melting Antarctica From Below Research indicates a huge upwelling of hot rock lies beneath the ice of Antarctica's Marie Byrd Land.Researchers at NASA have discovered a huge upwelling of hot rock under Marie Byrd Land, which lies between the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea, is creating vast lakes and rivers under the ice sheet. The presence of a huge mantle plume could explain why the region is so unstable today, and why it collapsed so quickly at the end of the last Ice Age, 11,000 years ago.

Has climate change happened before in Antarctica ? Ice cores from the Antarctic ice sheet give clues to past global climate that can help predict future climate . Yet studies of sediments under newly lost ice shelves suggest that the recent ice shelf loss is unprecedented in the last several thousand years.

US only country to reject Paris climate deal after Syria signs up. 07 Nov 2017, 1:23pm. Meet the British lawyer who's swimming the Antarctic Ocean in his Speedos to save our seas.

Ms Parkes and Ms Hillman are now on their 12th dive, and despite nerves early on, they're hooked.

"I was kind of 50/50, stupidly excited, but there was always that little niggle in the back of your brain thinking you're going through a hole in the ice," Ms Parkes said.

"Once I was down there, you just kind of forget it and it's amazing - it's like the landscape of another planet."

Ms Hillman said, under the ice, it's a completely different world. The water is crystal clear and illuminated by the sun on the ice above.

"I've travelled a bit, but nothing compares to this," she said.

"It's really tiring, because you come up from every dive shivering - and that's a good dive. We've had some bad dives with leaks... you can't move, your hand just goes into a claw and it takes ages, even with a stove, just to warm up."

Despite the cold, the team are looking forward to their remaining dives, before they head home to New Zealand.

The data collected will keep them busy for at least a year, figuring out how the changing climate is impacting life under the ice.

Thousands of scientists issue bleak 'second notice' to humanity .
In 1992, scientists warned humanity about a host of impending ecological disasters. A quarter-century later, most of them have gotten worse.In late 1992, 1,700 scientists from around the world issued a dire “warning to humanity.” They said humans had pushed Earth's ecosystems to their breaking point and were well on the way to ruining the planet. The letter listed environmental impacts like they were biblical plagues — stratospheric ozone depletion, air and water pollution, the collapse of fisheries and loss of soil productivity, deforestation,  species loss and  catastrophic global climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels.

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